One of the problems in traditional speakers concerns the off axis response of the tweeter.
Linear Audio Volumes
Hit by a surprising noise production mechanism in his previously published the Amp2 signal-to-noi
Despite the increasing popularity of gramophone records, many recordings are still only distribut
In his series of articles on error correction (EC) applied to audio amplifiers, the author has sh
Rudolf has published earlier articles in Linear Audio related to finding the lowest distortion so
This article covers a simple modification that overcomes most of the tricky thermal stability iss
In this brief article authors Groner and Putzeys discuss nonlinear distortion in reed relays.
This two-part article describes the design, configuration, software and use of a general-purpose
There are numerous designs and many commercially available Phono Preamps on the market, but there
This article deals with audio power amplifier power supplies with sine wave current absorption, s
‘Rumble’ is actually not a very accurate description.
This article considers the measurement of harmonic distortion in capacitors using a bridge circui
In recent times the audio and consumer media seem to have latched onto the term High Definition o
With this book, the author succeeded in convincing me that for loudspeakers, current drive is, in
Morgan Jones' conclusion after a thourough review: “The Art of Electronics” 3rd Ed.
Douglas Self's artcle on differential rumble cancellers (vol 10) provoked Marcel van de Gevel to
Mu Followers and Mu Stages have been available to the audio community for some time.
If there is a question in audio without a convincing answer, it is certainly the one about the wa
This amplifier design is, as the American expression says, “well off the beaten path”. It does n
Hans Polak read with great interest Giovanni Stochino’s articles addressing active feedback and e
Hans Polak very openly communicated his doubts on some issues in Giovanni’s Error Correction arti
In a paper published in Electronics World and Wireless World in September 1994 Douglas Self gave
There are many types of volume controls, from simple potentiometer to transformers (autotransform
This investigation grew out of a letter that was published in HiFi News at the end of 2015, where
Among tube designers, the cathode follower is always subject to debate.
Eugene Dvoskin needed a pair of high performance voltage regulator to provide very clean power to
Burkhard Vogel had an article in the fifth Linear Audio (Vol 4) about calculating the noise prod
It is often said that the listening room should be considered in the same way as any other compon
Bill Waslo has been impressed with what acoustic diffusion does in audio systems. In his view, p
It is fair to say that most hi-fi enthusiasts have paid little attention to the importance of the
If you have available the last edition of Audio Power Amplifier Design and Small Signal Audio Des
As Stuart notes, the circuit concepts in this book integrate several ideas in a synergistic way,
Gary’s interest in RIAA equalization for displacement-sensitive phono cartridges has been piqued
In Linear Audio Volume 0, Frank Blöhbaum proposed an interesting circuit for use with pentodes, w
When tinkering with your turntable have you ever wondered what anti-skating, effective tonearm ma
In this short Guest Editorial, AudioXpress’ Editor in Chief Joao Martins reflects on the continu
Hans Polak used to strictly adherence to the XLR ‘pin 1’ connection rules in his fully balanced a
Scott Wurcer noticed that, when playing records, the signal often gets digitized on its ultimate
It is well known that when a transistor is set up such that the Vce, Ic and power dissipation do
In linear power supplies with solid state rectifiers, the diode switch-off transient generates a
We can very easily design RIAA phono and line preamplifier circuits with solid state devices such
A tapped horn is a speaker design, where the horn is folded and the transducer is placed in a baf
Few people will disagree that the strict technical performance of the vinyl LP audio reproduction
Stan Curtis reflects on many decades of experiences with powering audio equipment.
Gary Galo reviews ‘Vinyl – The Analogue Record in the Digital Age’ by Dominik Bartmanski and Ian
Morgan Jones reviews ‘Grounding and Shielding, Circuits and Interference’ by Ralph Morrison.
In his review of Douglas Self’s 2nd edition of Small Signal Audio Design, Jean-Pierre
When Rudy van Stratum decided to clean his attic and decided to remove stacks of decades-old audi
Cyril’s capacitor article series in Electronics World, a few decades ago, were a landmark in our
All electronic components have defined boundaries of operation where they can be expected to oper
In this article, the authors introduce the design of a power amplifier with only three necessary
In this second part, Stochino presents and discusses the results of his recent investigations and
Burkhard Vogel set out to rectify some shortcomings of his Phono Engine I which was presented in
Your editor took out some time to get back to the lab table and look into that question of ‘therm
Our regular contributor Stan Curtis wonders why the hi-fi world does tend to stick with what it k
Bob Cordell is an experienced user of the free Spice simulator from Linear Technology, LTspice.
Gramophone preamplifier noise calculations – the 3852 Hz rule revisited Vol 8
A Cube-law audio power amplifier – class-A at ¼ the idle dissipation Vol 8
On Digital Audio Formats and the Nyquist – Shannon sampling Theorem Vol 8
As often happens, when Giovanni Stochino started planning for part 2 of his error correction seri
The Otto Schade Method – A practical design method for rectifier circuits Vol 8
The uTracer V3.10 – a curve tracer for valves Vol 8
Sound Reproduction: The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and Rooms - Floyd Toole Vol
The Equal Opportunity - A Balanced Moving Magnet Phono Stage (Part 2) Vol 8
Multiplied Transconductance Amplifiers – part 2: high power amplification Vol 8
In his Guest Editorial, Joachim Gerhard gives a very personal rendition of his many years of sear
When Barrie Gilbert turns his mind to an area of design, expect the unexpected.
George Ntanavaras wanted to design some simple speakers for his surround system.
Every audio designer finds himself eventually in the situation that he needs a very low noise pre
Recent investigations and developments related to feedback and feed-forward error correction (Par
The Equal Opportunity - A Balanced Moving Magnet Phono Stage (Part 1) Vol 7 Stuart Yaniger Not ju
David Zan David Zan makes good on his promise in the previous issue's Guest Editorial.
Douglas Self approaches 'RIAA optimization' from an unexpected slant: which circuit configuration
Drawing on decades of research and experiments, Malcolm Hawksford reviews the most often encounte
Overwhelmingly, serious music listing is done through speakers and much less through headphones.
Building Valve Amplifiers, Morgan Jones Vol 7 Marcel van de Gevel Marcel van de Gevel checks out
Audio Power Amplifier Design, 6th ed.
In his Guest Editorial, David Zan argues that almost all power amplifier designs have gyrated to
Bob Cordell explored power amp compensation techniques that allow the designer to employ more fee
In his earlier article, Robert Munnig Schmidt described a subwoofer system with an electronic sol
Hans Polak noticed that the noise specifications of RIAA preamps are often given in units and ope
Noise in audio circuits hampers the ability to listen to low level details in the signal.
In the heydays of AM radio receivers some tubes were produced having up to 6 grids, called octode
Although Erno Borbely must have designed a dozen or more phono preamps, he never tires of trying
Controlling the quiescent current in class AB output stages has long been the Achilles heel of su
Hannes Allmaier likes to design phono preamps because of the interesting mix of conflicting requi
Static Induction Transistors are solid state devices that have triode-like characteristics.
David Moran noticed that the Infinity P362, a decade old speaker design which is still favored by
Bruno Putzeys maintains that one of the causes for many, many ground problems in audio is the (su
An Archival Phono Preamplifier is a phono preamplifier designed for playback of vintage recording
The introduction of the "high resolution" digital formats for the recording of sound has initiate
In a previous article (Linear Audio Volume 0), Pierre investigated audio transformers as magnetic
Morgan Jones Look inside almost any piece of commercial equipment having a linear power supply an
Erik Margan has long realized that a cable is a potential source of trouble interconnecting two o
Oliver Masciarotte; To Serve and Groove Vol 5
Most of us agree that the aim of good hi-fi is to re-create the sounds heard in the control room
When the small "bookshelf" loudspeakers became popular some 30 - 40 years ago, they established a
The development of artificial reverberation in the audio industry has been aimed at duplicating t
In 1996, Douglas Self published a design for what became known as the Precision Preamplifier, whi
Les Bordelon has been building renowned designer and author Erno Borbely's designs for many years
Lennart Jarlevang gets his hands on the best of two world: a pair of massive single-ended transfo
Static Induction Transistors are remarkably like triodes, both in electrical characteristics and
Standard THD measurements give a clear indication of amplifier linearity for the signals with whi
Burkhard makes the observation that the audio designer, when it comes to noise performance of his
Since noise is always a very important factor in phono preamp designs, Marcel gives it much atten
In this installment of his regular The Way I see it column, Stan Curtis makes the point that the
Operational Amplifier Noise - Techniques and Tips for Analyzing and Reducing Noise Ovidiu Popa Ov
The case for subjective Listening Tests Hans van Maanen In his Guest Editorial, Hans van Maanen a
Inspired by Nelson Pass' work with Static Induction Transistors, and Lennart Jarlevang's experie
After spending many years to write an encyclopedic tome on audio power amplifier design, Bob Cord
Power supply regulators for low power audio circuits have always been a source of controversy.
Book review Morgan Jones Valve Amplifiers (4th edition) Yaniger Our resident tube book reviewer S
No lab or hobby shack should be without a preamplifier to measure very low signals with very low
Dr. Ramaswamy is back with another usefull piece of lab equipment.
Professor Robert Munnig Schmidt teaches Mechatronics at one of Netherlands prestigious universiti
Ruschkowski got inspired by his friend Erno Borbely (who should not need any introduction) to des
Part I of this article appeared in Linear Audio Vol 1 in Spring 2011 and readers have been asking
If you are looking for that ultimate headphone replay amplifier, you couldn't do any better than
Digital Interpolation is a way to reduce complexity and requirements for post-DAC analog filterin
With all our focus on individual designs and equipment and trying to improve our amps and speaker
Steven van Raalte set out to combat the resonance in phono cartridges.
Many class-A amplifiers are placed in a largish enclosure with heatsinks that ‘look about right’.
Book review Burkhard Vogel The Sound of Silence (2nd edition) Popa Ovidiu Popa's expertise on low
This article has been inspired by previous work by LC Audio, Leach and Nelson Pass.
Active filter stages having two (usually complex) poles and two (usually complex) zeroes can be v
TWhen Rudolf Moers discovered tube amplifiers, he could not find a good book that explained vario
Book review - The Design of Active Crossovers by Douglas Self Castor-Perry Kendall (aka The Filte
Book review - Fundamental Amplifier techniques for Electron Tubes by Rudolf Moers Vol 2
Guest Editorial - Digital Audio: Progress, Stagnation and Regression Gary Galo Gary offers an ins
In this article Samuel reviews existing transimpedance stage configurations, and then introduces
In Linear Audio Vol 0, Nelson Pass paid tribute to the classical single-ended transformer-coupled
In The C70 KT-88 Vacuum Tube Stereo Amplifier, Bob Cordell shows he is equally well versed in tub
In this article, Kendall presents a solid state unity-gain power output stage that has very low d
For loudspeaker design and prototyping you'd want a simple, flexible system to play' with the cro
In L|A Vol 0 Jean-Claude described the development of the P21 mid-high satellites with optional p
It is well known that Class-A gives the best sound quality in audio power amplifiers but the effi
Project21, described elsewhere by Jean-Claude Gaertner, needed a flexible level control system fo
Letter to the Editor Peter van Willenswaard Peter van Willenswaard comments on Stuart Yaniger's a
Letter to the Editor Burkhard Vogel Burkhard Vogel comments on two articles in Vol 0: Frank Blöhb
Large-value electrolytic capacitors are an easy solution to keep DC offset out of low-impedance s
Adventures of a diy-audio-addict Rudy van Stratum Rudy describes his adventures from a consumer-w
Book review - High End Valve Amplifiers by Menno Vanderveen Vol 1
Book review - Designing Audio Power Amplifiers by Bob Cordell Jean-Pierre Vanderreydt Jean-Pierre
Audiophiles are often told that their new equipment, components or cables need to be 'broken in'
Low noise input stages are widely used in audio equipment, in particular for Moving Magnet (MM) a
Discussions on (audible) differences between types of passive components like resistors range far
Feedback is at once a basic subject in engineering and a remarkably polarizing one in audio with
Vol 0 - Split the Difference: The Truth about the Humble Cathodyne.
Vol 0 Book review Andy Bryner Andy reviews Douglas Selfs' latest book, "Small-signal Audio Design
Vol 0 From the editors desk Jan Didden Why would anyone in his right mind start an audio publicat
Ari has been publishing his DC-coupled, Modulating Bias design as the Simplex amplifier.
The problems with stereo sound reproduction start already at the recording end of the signal chai
Audio equipment has become so transparent that it taxes the resolving power of all but the most e
In the tube world, it is taken for granted that if you want a low noise amplifier you don't use a
Leakage inductance is caused by that part of the primary flux that doesn't make it to the seconda
Tom Nousaine exposes some myths about low frequency reproduction in home listening rooms.
Vol 0 Book sneak preview Jan Didden Bob Cordell's Magnus Opus 'Audio Power Amplifier Design' was
Vol 0 Down the Rabbit Hole - Adventures in the Land of Phonostages Joachim Gerhard When prolific
Vol 0 The IC notebook Ed Simon If, like Ed Simon, you have more different IC's than you can keep
Two things define the distortion performance of a power amplifier; the open-loop linearity of the